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Paper Issue 14 Thesis title: Discuss doubts

Shi Zhenwu(Thimytrang LE)
Shi Zhenwu(Thimytrang LE)
  I am willing to plant good causes, conditions by making vows, gradually subdue my Afflictions, stay away from evil mentors and even to all evils, follow the Kind Mentor to hear the Proper Dharma, bring forth the intention of achieving unsurpassed path and carry out the Buddhas’ Practice....Read More

  Paper Issue 14

  Thesis title: Discuss doubts

  Mentor: Bennie Spirit
  Writer: Thimytrang LE (Grace Spirit)
  Date: 26/09/2023 

I. Introduction

  According to the Buddha’s teachings, sentient beings are sick people, sick in body and mind . In this context, mental affliction is considered to be of greater gravity than physical malaise. Furthermore, when compounded by karmic consequences, the spectrum of ailments becomes immeasurable and without bounds. In the Sutra of the Complete Samadhi of Merit and Merit, the Buddha expounded, “I, myself, contemplate the notion of being an afflicted individual.” However, in life, many people often think that they are not sick, and only when they realize they are sick do they seek a doctor to take medicine to treat their illness. People who know they are sick will take advantage of the time and opportunity to treat and seek healing, while people who don’t even know they are sick will have the disease to the final stage. And then finding a doctor and finding medicine to treat the condition becomes extremely difficult.

  Among all diseases, there is one that does not require a stethoscope or ultrasound machine to detect. It is a psychological disease of the soul and spirit, especially the “disease of doubt.” But can doubt be considered a disease? It could be because it has the potential to cause mental stress and affect our lives more than we can imagine.

  Doubt, a mental state that we have experienced at least once in our lives, maybe a hidden disease, not easy to recognize, but it substantially impacts mental health, our bodies, and our lives. Doubt not only appears in the medical environment but also penetrates every aspect of human life. We can doubt others, doubt ourselves, doubt the world around us, and even doubt our existence, etc….

  Disease is an abnormal state. Disease is a strange life process due to a disturbance in the body’s homeostasis under the harmful effects of several causes. The disease is a living state caused by specific reasons. In this state, the shape and (or) function of the human body undergoes specific changes, everyday life activities are limited or destroyed, sooner or later symptoms will appear, and the result of this state can be recovery (returning to normal state) or long-term existence, even leading to death… the word “sick” means a person lying in bed, (unable to get up, limited movement). The word disease in English is a compound word of dis (not) and easy (comfortable, comfortable).

  So, doubt is a disease. If not detected and treated promptly, doubt can negatively affect a person’s soul and overall health. In the 21st century, self-doubt is a prevalent disease and more severe than ever. This raises important questions about the relationship between doubt and illness, a topic that is decisive for human health, mental and physical. So, the writer decided to research “The relationship between doubt and illness” to understand better how these factors interact and influence each other.

  This thesis aims to research the relationship between doubt and disease, proving that doubt is a disease.

  A better understanding of this topic can help us realize that we are all in a state of illness and that we are sick people, from which we can consciously and proactively improve ourselves, find a doctor, Prescribe medicine, and treat diseases to reach the point of giving up doubts and doubts, increasing good karma and trust in people and life, no longer continuing to destroy yourself, causing the excellent karma around you to lose its lousy karma gradually. Drag to.

  This article will proceed from a theoretical basis to explore the relationship between psychological doubt and illness. First, the concepts and definitions of skepticism and illness will be introduced. Then, going deeper into analysis proves that the state of doubt is a pathology; doubt is the disease. Finally, we will use specific disease states to understand the actual manifestations and effects of suspected infections.

  By delving into the complex relationship between (suspected) hypochondriasis and disease, this article aims to provide all of us and those living with this disease with a better understanding and solutions. Address challenges in this critical area.

  In this article, we mainly use the inductive-interpretive method to present in detail the relationship between doubt and illness.

  This thesis will study the relationship between doubt and illness from a psychological perspective and their mutual impact on the patient’s life and overall health. However, this thesis will be limited in scope and will not consider detailed aspects of every specific disease. In addition, the research is defined in terms of particular variables only through some phenomena that have occurred generally in practice. Therefore, the results may only be generalizable to some patient populations.

II. Define

  1. What is disease?

  What is disease? In medicine, “Disease” is an abnormal life process due to disturbances in the body’s homeostasis under the harmful effects of several causes. The disease is a living state caused by several reasons. In this state, the human body’s shape and (or) functions have specific changes; routine daily activities are limited. Inhibited or destroyed, sooner or later, symptoms may appear, and the result of this state may be recovery (returning to normal) or long-term survival, even leading to death.

  The existence of a disease begins with subjective symptoms such as pain and discomfort. The word “disease” existed in Chinese bone inscriptions and had names such as “eye disease” and “foot disease,” meaning pain in various parts of the body. The word “sick” means a person lying in bed. (unable to stand up, limited movement). The word disease in English is a compound word of dis (not) and easy (comfortable, comfortable). However, not all diseases are accompanied by pain and discomfort; for example, the patient does not feel hurt in the early stages of tumors and the incubation period of infectious diseases. Not all pain is a disease, such as teething in children, childbirth, etc. So, pain is just a symptom, not a disease. With the development of medicine, people have discovered that some symptoms are often caused by certain causes, causing specific pathological changes in the human body based on these changes. In this pathology, the symptoms are only changes in form or function; this process has particular changes. (death, disability, congenital disabilities, etc.) so people call this process “disease,” and cases where the cause cannot be determined are called syndromes.

  Illness, like health, can be defined differently from many different perspectives. The most commonly used definition is “a deviation from the normal form and function of the human body. Modern medicine has measured various biological parameters of the human body (including intelligence), and their values usually follow the law of normal distribution in statistics; that is, they can be calculated to find the mean and range of 95% of healthy individuals. People often call this range “normal”. If it exceeds this range is too high or too low, it is “abnormal.” In many cases, this definition is applicable; for example, typhoid fever can be manifested by an increase in body temperature and “typhoid hemagglutinin” (antibodies) in the blood over a certain period. However, normal people have great individual differences and biological variation, and sometimes this definition does not apply. For example, the size of a normal person’s heart has a certain range, and many diseases can cause cardiac hypertrophy. However, for athletes, A heart larger than normal size accompanied by bradycardia (slow, about 40 beats per minute) is not a pathology; this deviation from normal values belongs to individual differences. Then his peer is a genius, not a patient; some people define disease in terms of function or adaptive capacity and believe that only when the function is impaired, and the ability to coordinate with the environment is destroyed is it a manifestation of disease, so to avoid misclassifying individual differences and biological variations of normal people as diseases. Sickle cell anemia, symptoms appearing only when deprived of oxygen, indicates an adaptive defect. However, poor adaptive function is not necessarily a disease. For example, a person who has not been physically active for a long time cannot adapt to physical activities that normal people can do; just slight exertion will cause back pain. It’s not a disease. Therefore, some people suggest adding a “state of not being sick” between health and disease, so there is still no satisfactory definition of disease.

  In most diseases, the body undergoes a series of reactions against the damage caused by the cause. Disturbances in homeostasis, injury, and anti-injury responses are manifested by many complex abnormal changes in function, metabolism, and morphological structure during the disease. These changes can also cause Disruption of coordination between different organ systems in the body and between the body and the external environment, causing many symptoms, signs, and behavioral abnormalities, significantly weakening or even losing adaptability to the environment and physical fitness. Disease is a reaction of the whole body, but different diseases have notable changes in certain parts (organs or systems). Illness has a cause, but a single factor does not necessarily cause it. The cause of disease is often due to environmental factors affecting genetically susceptible individuals.

  According to Buddhist wisdom, the definition of illness is evident, as in the Mahaparinirvana Sutra, volume 12, which defines: “What is illness? Illness means the four elements are poisonous and do not harmonize with each other. There are also two types: one is a physical illness, and the other is a mental illness. There are five diseases in the body: one is due to water, two is due to wind, three is due to heat, four is due to mixed diseases, and five is due to the illness of guests. There are four patient types: one is trying to do things beyond one’s ability, two is being careless and making mistakes, three is using knives, sticks, and stones, and ghosts are possessing four. There are four mental illnesses: one is too excited, two is fear, three is sadness, and four is stupidity. Good man again! There are three types of diseases of body and mind. What is three? One is karma, two is not being able to leave the opposing family, and three is the changing weather. They are giving birth to such names and conditions, suffering from different diseases. Cause and effect mean that due to the wind, various diseases arise. Namely, the heart is stuffy, the lungs are swollen, the upper qi is dry, the mind is scared, and diarrhea occurs. Who suffers from various illnesses such as headaches, eye pain, and pain in the hands and feet, which is called illness. ”

  In short, disease is an abnormal state in the human body, which often begins with subjective symptoms and can lead to changes in function and appearance. It has caused and is often complex, and its definition can vary based on medical perspectives and spiritual knowledge.

  2. What is doubt?

  What is doubt? According to medical explanations, “Hypochondriacal disease (Suspected disease) is also known as hypochondriacal neuropathy. It refers to a neurological disorder that gives unrealistic and pathological explanations for one’s emotions or symptoms, causing the entire mind and body to be occupied by doubts, worries, and fear. It is characterized by excessive concern for one’s health and biases that are difficult to eliminate. The patient suspects he is suffering from a non-existent disease, and neither the doctor’s explanation nor objective examination is enough to dispel his belief. Hypochondriasis primarily refers to a patient’s long-term preoccupation with the condition, worrying or believing that they have one or more serious physical illnesses, with the patient complaining of physical symptoms and persistent seeking medical treatment, despite repeated negative physical examinations and the doctor’s explanation that there is no evidence of the corresponding illness, they are often accompanied by anxiety or depression. Doubt or preoccupation with physical disorders is also part of this syndrome.”

  In the Maha A Ham Sutra, volume 27, it is said: “What is doubt? There are three generations. What is three? That means past life, present life, and future life. Hesitant about past lives, hesitant about future lives, hesitant about present lives, unrighteous thoughts arise about these lives, doubts that have not yet arisen cause them to arise, doubts that have already arisen cause growth, called doubt.”

  So what is doubt? From the scriptures, it can be understood that when faced with people, things, and events, the mind is skeptical, confused, unable to comprehend, separated from mindfulness, biased toward wrong thoughts, and unable to distinguish right from wrong. From then on, facing the immediate realms, facing the Buddha Dharma, Sangha, and the Three Jewels, facing Good Knowledge, facing parents, teachers, etc., facing all dharmas, a mind of doubt arises, hesitating and undecided; moreover, they are determined to distinguish according to their illusory delusions, that’s why there are people who resent their loved ones. Because of this, people resent their loved ones and have love and hate. Because of love and hate, they combine with the afflictions of greed, anger, ignorance, pride, resentment, love, etc., using swords and swords to deal with each other and litigate disputes. Fighting emotions give rise to crooked and twisted appearances and untruthful words, giving rise to such unwholesome karma, creating all such evil karma and evil deeds. Doubt often appears in daily life, and it can be considered a mental illness and is very common in society in general and each individual in particular.

  In short, doubt is a psychological state of hesitation, doubt, distrust, and unmindful thinking about someone, something, or something in the past, present, and future. As a result, always pursuing one’s afflictions and worries combined with greed, anger, ignorance, and pride leads to creating all kinds of bad karma and evil actions with one’s body, speech, and mind. , thereby creating countless obstacles, anxiety, stress, hindering practice, learning, dealing with people, etc., it will hinder progress and seriously affect the mental and physical life—quality of the patient.

  From the explanations of medicine and Buddhism, we can see that its nature is inherently a medical condition; the severity depends on each person’s individual, but in general, it can only worsen life. People’s mental and physical energies are increasingly deteriorating, reaching a dead end even leading to destruction.

III. Why doubt is a disease

  Doubt can be considered a psychological illness or part of other complex psychological illnesses. As in the definition above, we know what a disease is, and doubting people leads to a psychological state, mental depression, stress, anxiety, and insecurity, leading to adverse effects. It affects the patient’s physical health and seriously affects daily life. Here are some evidence and reasons to explain why doubt is a disease:

  1. Psychological stress

  Although doubt can be a natural reaction to uncertain situations, when it becomes excessive and without a specific reason, it can cause psychological stress. This stress can affect the patient’s overall psychological condition. For example, imagine a man named “D” who is romantically involved with a woman named “S.” D has an unstable romantic history and has been in several failed relationships. Even though S had shown a lot of affection and loyalty towards him, D always suspected that S might be cheating and having an affair with someone else. He regularly checked S’s texts and calls, trying to find unfounded evidence of her infidelity. This suspicion is not based on any specific violation or sign of S. Over time, it will lead to discord and mutual distrust in all employment actions. Regardless of any measure, the other person’s gestures can lead to D’s suspicion. However, this feeling of fear is continuous and constant, making D feel stressed and anxious all the time. This stress can cause anxiety and mistrust in D’s relationship with S and affect his overall mood, making it impossible for him to enjoy happiness in the relationship. Mine. From this psychological state of insecurity, stress and doubt leads to physical illnesses such as lack of strength, difficulty breathing, suffocation, heart attack, dizziness, etc., psychological phenomena will occur. Directly affects physical health status.

  In this example, the excessive and unfounded suspicion caused psychological stress and affected D’s overall health, even though there were no specific signs that S was causing this mistrust. Therefore, you should know that psychological doubt is a sick state with no basis. This doubt is entirely unrealistic and untrue, just the patient’s ill and paranoid state. All suspicions are altogether inconsistent with the actual situation. Therefore, it is necessary to understand that doubt is just a state of illness, and one should not trust one’s delusional speculation.

  2. Create Anxiety

  Doubt is closely related to anxiety, especially anxiety about the future and one’s future. Doubt about everything can cause unnecessary stress and reduce a person’s quality of life.

  For example, imagine a woman named A who works in business. A has a stable job and a history of success in his career. However, recently, she has become doubtful about her future at work and worried about her career stability. A frequently suspects that she may lose her job due to changes in the industry or because she is incompetent. She worries about being unable to maintain her current and future life. This doubt and anxiety were not based on any specific indication that she would lose her job or be unable to cope with work challenges. As a result of this doubt, A experienced unnecessary anxiety and stress closely related to his future in the work environment. This anxiety can affect her mentally, making her feel stressed, possibly causing her health to deteriorate further, and making her unable to enjoy everyday life. It can hinder her from doing her job effectively and taking advantage of opportunities in her career.

  Therefore, you should know that doubt is a disease many people suffer from, but most of us do not think it is a disease; we need to find a way to cure it; reaching the extreme level will be at risk. It becomes a mental illness and can also cause other diseases.

  3. Social relationships are affected

  Doubt can cause mistrust in social relationships. The person may not trust others and may stay away from relationships for fear that they will be deceived or hurt. For example, V has symptoms of constantly suspecting that people around him are trying to harm him, even if they are relatives; V always suspects them, such as when making food for his family, V doubts someone has quit smoking. Poisoned food to kill me and rob me of my property, or for any other reason, I suspect my colleagues want to kill me to usurp my benefits or work when I go to work or enter V’s office. Regardless of any situation, every action of another person, and for any unreasonable reason, V can imagine to suspect that the people around him want to kill him. V always tries to avoid, defend, or curse, or the pressure causes depression and does not like contact with people. If the symptoms are severe, it can make others upset. Emotional rifts and since then, V’s social relationships, whether at home, at work, or with friends, have had conflicts, not being able to live happily with everyone, etc. Therefore, you should know that This doubt is a disease that seriously affects the patient’s health, psychology, and life.

  4. Associated with other diseases

  Doubt is often linked to other psychological illnesses such as anxiety, psychosis, paranoia, and social interaction disorders. Suspicion may be part of the symptoms of these diseases or may appear alongside them.

  Here are some examples to illustrate the link between doubt and other mental illnesses:

  1. Anxiety Disorders: Doubt often accompanies anxiety disorders. For example, people with anxiety disorders may doubt social situations or future events, even with no concrete basis. They may fear losing control or being unable to face uncertain problems.

  2. Psychotic Disorders: In mental disorders such as autism or schizoid personality, suspicion may be part of the symptoms. For example, people with mental disorders may suspect they are being watched or controlled by others without evidence.

  3. Delusional Disorders: Delusional disorders often include unreasonable doubt about a fixed idea or belief. For example, people with delusional disorder may suspect they are the most critical person in the world or are being specially watched.

  4. Social Interaction Disorders: People with social interaction disorder often have difficulty understanding and dealing with others in social situations. Suspicion about other people’s intentions may be part of this symptom. For example, they may suspect others always have hostile intentions toward them in social situations.

  These examples show that doubt can be closely linked to many different mental illnesses and can be part of their symptoms or appear alongside them, increasing the complexity of the condition—the patient’s psychology.

  5. Affects quality of life

  Doubt can cause a decrease in quality of life because it affects the ability to carry out daily activities and enjoy life.

  Suppose a man named M has an anxiety disorder with suspected symptoms related to personal safety. Despite no concrete evidence, M always suspected that people around him intended to harm him.

  Due to the constant doubt, M had to live daily with stress and anxiety. He always had to check on people, assess every situation around him, and often avoided social activities or public places out of fear. Doubt has reduced M’s ability to participate in social activities and enjoy life, such as walking, meeting friends, attending social events, or traveling.

  Due to excessive focus on doubt and worry, M lost the opportunity to participate in social activities and fully experience life. This affected his quality of life, causing loneliness and isolation and making his life as limited and unenjoyable as possible.

  In this example, doubt creates stress and anxiety in M’s daily life and affects his ability to participate in social activities and enjoy life, reducing his quality of life.

IV. Symptoms of suspected disease

  According to medical science, we have listed and described in detail the manifestations, symptoms, and attitudes that often appear in people with suspected diseases as follows:

  Initially, it often manifests itself as excessive concern for one’s health and any small changes in the body, giving hypocritical explanations inconsistent with the actual state of health, accompanied by corresponding hypochondriacal discomfort and gradually becoming more systematic hypochondriacal symptoms. Symptoms of hypochondriasis can range from general discomfort to pain or dysfunction in one area to a specific disease. Symptoms are more common in the musculoskeletal and digestive systems. In terms of location, the most common symptoms are in the head, neck, and abdomen. Symptoms of anxiety, worry, fear, and autonomic nervous system dysfunction often accompany them. Hypochondriasis refers to an obsession with physical health or the suspected illness rather than worrying about the illness’s consequences or secondary social impacts. Patients also know that troubles harm their health and suffering cannot be relieved or liberated. Seek medical advice everywhere, describe the whole condition story, but do not trust the test results or the doctor’s explanations or reassurances. Some patients exhibit unique symptoms of hypochondriasis, such as a distinctive, abnormal sense of smell or strange body shape.

  1. The psychological disorder of hypochondriasis has two manifestations; one is hypochondriasis, which is a feeling of increased sensitivity to a specific part of the body or a particular part, leading to hypochondriasis or paying too much attention. The patient’s description needs to be clarified, and the position needs to be fixed. But another type of patient’s description is vivid and specific; he believes that he has a particular disease, and the patient himself is convinced that it does not exist, but he requires many meetings. Examination and sympathy of the doctor. Doctor’s explanation and reassurance. Eliminating his hypocritical beliefs was insufficient, and he still believed the test could be wrong. As a result, the patient is worried, nervous, restless, and miserable. This is a hypocritical concept, an overvalued kind of concept, with emotional solid colors.

  2. Pain is the disease’s most common symptom; about 2/3 of patients have symptoms, and familiar locations are the head, waist, or right iliac fossa. This type of pain cannot be clearly described, sometimes even complaining of pain all over the body. Still, without objective evidence, patients often go to internal medicine and surgical departments for treatment but to no avail. They have to go to a mental hospital. Symptoms are often accompanied by insomnia, anxiety, and depressive symptoms.

  3. Physical symptoms are diverse and widespread, involving many different body areas, such as a distinctive body odor. Nausea, difficulty swallowing, acid reflux, bloating, stomach pain, palpitations, left-sided chest pain, shortness of breath, and concerns about high blood pressure or heart disease. Some patients are suspected of having unusual facial features, especially the shape of the nose, ears, and chest, and complaining of body odor or sweating.

V. Suspected Cause of Disease

  Hypochondriasis, also known as Hypochondriasis or Hypochondriasis, is a complex psychological illness with many causes. Here are some underlying causative factors that can be discussed medically to understand better why some people are more susceptible to this disease than others:

  Hypochondriasis patients often have personality traits such as excessive concern for their health, demanding perfection, stubbornness, stinginess, and caution before getting sick. Male patients often have obsessive-compulsive characteristics, and female patients more often have hysterical features. About 1/3 of the cases are due to physical diseases, most of which can be caused by physicians. The reinforcing effects of psychosocial factors play a role in the persistence of the disease.

  1. Psychological Factors

  Anxiety and stress: Anxiety and stress can be essential to hypochondriasis. People with this disease often have high pressure and fear about their health.

  Family relationships: Family relationship patterns can affect a person’s psychological state, such as changes in marriage, separation from children, reduced friendships, loneliness, and instability. If sufferers often feel attention or pressure from family regarding their health, they can quickly develop hypochondriasis.

  2. Social Factors

  Psychosocial factors such as lack of security can become causes of illness. Media and Internet: Information about diseases, symptoms, and diseases on television, the Internet, and other media can create anxiety and concern about health. People with suspected disorders can easily access this information and develop unnecessary stress. Therefore, Society can create pressure to maintain health and appearance. Competition over body shape and fitness can make some people more susceptible to body shape-related hypochondria or health symptoms.

  3. Personal Factors

  Atopic factors Susceptibility to atopic diseases is also an essential basis for the onset of the disease. It is found that members of the same family all have the same illnesses. The personality traits of these patients are sensitive, suspicious, subjective, stubborn, cautious, overly concerned with the body, and very demanding. Male patients often have obsessive personalities before getting sick, while women are related to hysterical characters.

  Personality: A person’s character can affect their ability to handle anxiety and stress. People with paranoid or overly sensitive characters can quickly develop hypochondriasis.

  For some patients, the doctor’s inappropriate treatment, words, attitude, and behavior make the patient suspicious, or the doctor makes an incorrect diagnosis and repeatedly asks the patient to do some tests, making the patient suspect that he has a particular disease. Some patients become suspicious due to autosuggestions or associations after experiencing a physical illness.

  These factors often act together and may contribute to the occurrence and development of hypochondriasis.

  4. From the Buddhist point of view:

  What is the origin of doubt? In the 6th volume of the Mahayana Sutra of Samsara, Mind, and Ground Contemplation, it is said: “Or there is a Bodhisattva who, because his mind does not believe, has fear, like a person without arms who, although entering a treasure mountain, cannot get anything in the end. A person without faith will gain nothing even if he meets the Three Jewels.” The existence of doubt will create fear, and nothing will be achieved. Even if there is something delicious in front of you, when in doubt, you will immediately reject it and refuse to believe in it. If you don’t think it, it’s unacceptable. If you cannot accept it, you cannot have it. Just like a person without arms, even if he goes to the treasure mountain, he cannot get the treasure. Likewise, if you do not have faith and even have serious doubts, even if you meet the Three Jewels, you will not get anything, including all benefits. For example, Buddhas and Bodhisattvas can eliminate all evil karma, evil conditions, and evil retributions. They can even give you fearlessness and make you quickly stop all things. Obstacles, diseases, poverty, and disasters are all destroyed, as the great vow of Avalokiteśvara in the Universal Gate Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara Pure Saint, Fearless Bodhisattva, Eliminates All Obstacles Bodhisattva, Ksitigarbha Bodhisattva, Original Buddha, Medicine Buddha, etc. Many other Buddhas and Bodhisattvas have vows and means to help us leave suffering and be happy. But if we do not have faith and doubt, we will not be able to receive these benefits.

  Therefore, you should know that because there is no trust, there is doubt, so why not trust? Why do you have doubts? What is the origin of doubt? Because of greed, if there is no greed, there will be no doubt because when the desire comes, there will be fear of losing or losing something of yourself, which will give rise to suspicion. For example, like the examples we cited above, if we are not greedy, we will not suspect others of deceiving us; if we are not, we will not suspect others of harming us. When you are cheap, you will be afraid of gaining or losing, so any external condition can influence the patient’s thinking to serve as material for them to be suspicious of the other person. If you are not greedy, there will be no further consequences, such as an object that is dirty and does not belong to you and has no value; in your heart, you do not care about it, then when someone else takes it away or uses it, or throw it away, etc., we don’t care about the problems happening around it. Therefore, you should know that doubt will only arise with being greedy.

VI. Conclude

  In this article, we discussed hypochondria and delved into understanding why hypochondria can be considered a psychological illness. First, we have defined illness and doubt, thereby realizing that hypochondria is a complex psychological condition that can cause effects on other physical illnesses such as the body. It may have a special odor. Nausea, difficulty swallowing, acid reflux, bloating, stomach pain, palpitations, left-sided chest pain, shortness of breath, and concerns about high blood pressure or heart disease. Some patients are suspected of having unusual facial features, especially the shape of the nose, ears, and chest, and complaining of body odor or sweating.

  We have discussed factors contributing to hypochondriasis, including psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, and affected social relationships. We have also highlighted the link between hypochondriasis and other mental illnesses, such as anxiety disorders and psychosis.

  Next, the article examined the manifestations and symptoms commonly appearing in people with suspected diseases, from anxiety to pain and unnecessary health concerns.

  Finally, based on medical and Buddhist perspectives, discuss the causes of the suspected illness, including psychological, social, and personal factors. We have seen that hypochondriasis results from a complex interaction between these factors. Doubt is a disease, and almost everyone is in this pathological state. Because of doubt, all the good causes and conditions in life are lost, and all the evil people and evil effects appear, destroying all the goodness and happiness in the patient’s life.

  Therefore, most of us humans are suffering from this disease, more or less depending on each person’s level. According to medical explanations and the Buddha’s teachings, we can clearly understand that All of us sentient beings are sick people. We must recognize this and accept that we are sick. Only when you realize you are sick can you start to find a doctor and find medicine for treatment? Otherwise, people will become increasingly unhappy, and in the end, like seriously ill people who are about to die, they will lose consciousness and wait for the moment of death.

  In short, hypochondriasis is a psychological illness that affects the mood, health status, and social relationships of those suffering from the disease. To understand and help these people, we must continue researching and providing appropriate psychological support and remediation.

Reference directory

  1. Sutras:

  隋 闍那崛多譯《佛本行集經》卷22:《大正藏》冊03,頁754上。
  宋 法賢譯《帝釋所問經》:《大正藏》冊01,頁248中
  唐 般若译《大乘本生心地觀經》卷6:《大正藏》冊03,頁318中。

  2. Web疾病的概念疑病症

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